AppleScript asOBJc "case"

In peeking in some OBJc code and Java I’ve noticed the use of caE.
The layout seems very smart and simplified.

Are We Stuck with IF Then statements?

I seen some talks about mapping or hash tables…
And not sure if those are even in the ball park.

I could see setting up some associative lists.
Then I could figure out which index the current variable is located at.
Then make my new variables values based on that same index but sources from Luther lists?